Friday, May 22, 2020

Marijuana Laws Decriminalization Versus Legalization

Many people mistakenly use the terms decriminalization and legalization interchangeably when discussing marijuana laws. There are important distinctions between the two. When Colorado allowed retail pot stores to open in 2014 it sparked discussion across the country about whether medicinal or recreational marijuana use should be decriminalized or legalized. Some states have decriminalized it, while others have legalized it. Decriminalization Decriminalization  is a loosening of criminal penalties imposed for personal marijuana use even though the manufacturing and sale of the substance remain illegal. Essentially, under decriminalization, law enforcement is instructed to look the other way when it comes to the possession of small amounts of marijuana meant for personal use. Under decriminalization, both the production and sale of marijuana remain unregulated by the state. Those caught using the substance face civil fines instead of criminal charges. Preparing Homeopathic Medicine from Marijuana. CasarsaGuru/Getty Images Legalization Legalization, on the other hand, is the lifting or abolishment of laws banning the possession  and personal use of marijuana. More importantly, legalization allows the government to regulate and tax marijuana use and sales. Proponents also make the case that taxpayers can save millions of dollars by removing from the judicial system  the hundreds of thousands of offenders caught with small amounts of marijuana. Arguments in Favor of Decriminalizing Proponents of decriminalizing marijuana argue that it doesnt make sense to give the federal government the authority to legalize the use of marijuana on one hand while attempting to regulate it on the other, much the way it sends conflicting messages about alcohol and tobacco use.   According to Nicholas Thimmesch II, a former spokesman for the pro-marijuana legalization group NORML: Where is this legalization going? What confused message is legalization sending to our kids who are told by countless ads not to do any drugs (I do not consider marijuana to be a â€Å"drug† in the sense that cocaine, heroin, PCP, meth are) and suffer under â€Å"Zero Tolerance† school policies? Other opponents of legalization argue that marijuana is a so-called gateway drug that leads users to other, more serious and more addictive substances. Where It Is Decriminalized According to NORML, these states have fully decriminalized personal marijuana use: ConnecticutDelawareHawaii (takes effect Jan. 11, 2020)MaineMarylandMississippiNebraskaNew HampshireNew MexicoRhode Island These states have partially decriminalized certain marijuana offenses: MinnesotaMissouriNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhio Arguments in Favor of Legalizing Proponents of complete legalization of marijuana such as the actions taken in the early states of Washington and Colorado argue that allowing the manufacturing and sale of the substance removes the industry from the hands of criminals. They also argue that the regulation of marijuana sales makes it safer for consumers and provides a steady stream of new revenue for cash-strapped states.   The Economist magazine wrote in 2014 that decriminalization makes sense only as a step toward full legalization because under the former  only criminals  would profit from a product that remains outlawed. According to  The Economist: Decriminalization is only half the answer. As long as supplying drugs remains illegal, the business will remain a criminal monopoly. Jamaica’s gangsters will continue to enjoy total control over the ganja market. They will go on corrupting police, murdering their rivals and pushing their products to children. People who buy cocaine in Portugal face no criminal consequences, but their euros still end up paying the wages of the thugs who saw off heads in Latin America. For the producer countries, going easy on drug-users while insisting that the product remain illegal is the worst of all worlds. Where It Is Legalized Eleven states and the District of Columbia have legalized the personal possession of small amounts of marijuana, and, in some cases, the sale of pot in licensed dispensaries. AlaskaCaliforniaColoradoIllinoisMaineMassachusettsMichiganNevadaOregonVermont  WashingtonWashington, D.C.

Sunday, May 10, 2020

From The Different Pairs Of Artists That Were Given To

From the different pairs of artists that were given to do this research paper on I have decided to compare and contrast the pieces of Andy Warhol’s â€Å"Coca-Cola† and El Anatsui’s â€Å"Between Heaven and Earth†. I decided on writing about these two artists that of which both of their pieces caught my most attention because of their spirited and diverse works of art. Both, Andy Warhol and El Anatsui are prominent artists in their own fields and have made many more renowned pieces. The two artists, Warhol and Anatsui, have different techniques of expressing art, but can in some ways be comparable. Andy Warhol was a popular American Pop artist who had a prosperous career and was known for producing consumer culture pieces. Warhol was really drawn†¦show more content†¦He always painted something materialistic wise while his style was to make it seem vibrant and Warhol overtime would start and finish the way he wanted the art piece to be like. Warho l was fascinated with adding the pop to pop art. He was fond of using energetic colors and the artwork always had to do with something being materialistic and in a way he, himself, advertised whatever he had painted. The other things he painted or in a way advertised were â€Å"Campbell’s Soup Cans†, â€Å"Marilyn Diptych†, and â€Å"Eight Elvises†. He had used the screen-print on many more occasions and they are all of his famous pieces. Andy Warhol wanted to use Coca-Cola in his painting because of how famous the drink was in the America society and how everyone could buy the same Coca-Cola without getting anything different. Warhol was criticized for being superficial about his painting and that he was overrated as an artist. Paul Mattick quotes Andy Warhol, â€Å"If you want to know all about Andy Warhol, just look at the surface: of my paintings and films and me, and there I am. There’s nothing behind it.† Furthermore, he used one hundr ed and twelve bottles of Coca-Cola to represent the ubiquitous drink in America. He used vibrant colors in this piece, but did not keep the sameShow MoreRelatedDark Artillery : New Contrabands, No Change1747 Words   |  7 Pagesbelieved that they finally saw an opening to freedom. However, being a contraband did not mean instantaneous freedom and equality – they were nearly treated the same way as slaves. Contrabands were seen as tools instead of soldiers within the Union lines. In 1861, a cartoon titled Dark Artillery was published in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper by an unknown artist and dehumanized contrabands, stripping them of their human qualities by depicting them as parts of canons. This image gave a powerfulRead MoreCopyright Infringement Of The Happy Birthday Song, Along With The Walt Disney Company s Lobbying Tactics1180 Words   |  5 PagesCopyright is set out to protect the original artists’ creative work from imitations for a limited tim e, until it enters the Public Domain. Creators may view this as a much needed law to prevent infringement, which grants the lawful artist the rights to their respective work. However, continuing this practice is redundant as copyright does not accomplish what it has been set out to do. The Blurred Lines Case is used to convey how the Lay Listener Test fails to determine copyright infringement. Adele’sRead MoreConverse : More Than Just Shoes1640 Words   |  7 PagesThe Chuck Taylor or Converse as everyone knows them, are everlasting icons of American culture. Everyone wears chucks from James Dean in the 60’s to Michelle Obama now. The range of owners of converse is astounding. The range of use in converse is amazing. The Chuck Taylor has been named one of the most influential shoes of all time. Sixty percent of all Americans have owned a pair of Chuck Taylors at least once in their lives. (History) Converse was founded in 1908 by Marquise Mills in Malden, MassachusettsRead MoreAnalysis Of Hockey Game By Andy Warhol1262 Words   |  6 PagesThe image that I have chosen from Artstor, to demonstrate the understanding of the visual culture is a painting titled, â€Å"Hockey Game†. This image was created by Andy Warhol who was an American painter, printmaker and filmmaker from 1928 until 1987. There is no date on this piece. The actual size of this image is 8 by 10 inches and the material used is Gelaton silver print. Among the images found in Artstor, there is more than one image called the Hockey Game, created by the same author whichRead MoreThe Works Of David The King David1706 Words   |  7 Pagesof Israel, but after disobeying god’s words he was rejected from the throne† . David became the symbol of Florence, many artists have done sculptures of him and two of the best artists were Michelangelo and Bernini. These two were talented of creating sculp tures inspiration of David; although the subjects are the same their style of sculpting is different. There were other artist whose done sculpture of David, but by far these two were the best, in my opinion. â€Å"Michelangelo di Lodovico BuonarrotiRead MoreThe Role Of Buddhism And Its Arts1304 Words   |  6 PagesGandhara from India were the artist of the Buddha sculpture titled as Teaching Buddha which represents the second miracle of Srasvasti wherein the Buddha performed his superiority over kasyapas. This piece of sculpture was made in second or third century as a seated Buddha on an inverted lotus throne supported by two elephants and a lion. This sculpture’s present location is at The UC Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive (BAMPFA) in Berkeley California. The sculpture is placed on the tableRead MoreThe Life of Paulo Coelho1274 Words   |  5 Pages(Famous Authors). His parents were firmly against his desire to become a writer because they did not see a career as a writer. They went as far as placing him into a mental institution around the age eighteen three times. He even had to endure electrical shocks when he was in the mental institution. The reason why his parents placed him into a mental institution was because they wanted Coelho to have a practical job and realize that his dream will only stay a dream. From the website, the Famous AuthorsRead MoreThe Fall 2016 Exhibit At Esker Foundation Features Three1637 Words   |  7 Pagesat Esker Foundation features three shows: The Traveller by Cedric and Jim Bomford, Tear Down and Rebuild by Jasmina Cibic, and CIVIC. CENTRE. by Larissa Fassler. Curated by Naomi Potter, the gallery contains approximately 18 different works by the four above named artists. The shows each have strong work in their own right and converge on themes of construction, urbanization, and ideals of nationalism. Housed within a mixed-use retail and office building, to visit the gallery one must proceed toRead MoreThe And Out Of The Cradle Endlessly Rocking By Walt Whitman942 Words   |  4 PagesWhitman. Bits and pieces of nature were used to personify mortality. Additional historical context showed that th e poems are reflections of their respective authors’ view on mortality. The interpreted meanings of the theme from the poems were greatly different. Despite being written four decades apart, similarities between the poems were rampant. Poets used nature as a colour palette to paint a theme in their works. Mortality’s two faces of living and dying were exhibited through metaphors and imageriesRead MoreA Brief Note On The Hip Hop Industry Essay1428 Words   |  6 Pageshop artist, born in Miami, Florida, and is been more famously recognized within the music industry, in terms of fame and financial success. While these two artists come from opposite ends of the country, they do share similarities within their music and performance of hip hop culture, in that they both utilize problematic themes like misogyny, sexual objectification, and violence towards women in their lyrics and music videos, which are notorious subjects within hip hop music. They also pair this

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

My Aim in Life Free Essays

There are two things to aim at in life: first, to get what you want, and after that to enjoy it. Only the wisest of mankind achieve the second. Logan P. We will write a custom essay sample on My Aim in Life or any similar topic only for you Order Now Smith People have set their own aim depending upon their abilities. Some people are doctors, engineers, Charter Accountants, pilots, teachers and many more. Our life is too short so we have to strive to attain our aim with all our hard work. The main objective for achieving the aim is to get material pleasures, mental happiness as well as satisfaction. Once a person chives his aim he can live a prosperous life. The mere act of aiming at something big, makes you big. Charcoal Nehru My aim in life is neither to collect money nor for fame. It is my desire to become a well-qualified doctor. I do not just wish to be an ordinary doctor. The world remembers with thankfulness the name of the man who gave to the world vaccination. The world will remember forever the man who gave us penicillin. As a doctor I want to serve the humanity. Don’t aim for success if you want it; just do what you love and believe in, and it will come naturally. David Frost have an ambition to do something in this world so, great as the doctors and the courageous founders did in the past. I would like to give the world some new drugs and injections that will cure some of the diseases that people are still suffering from. An aim in life is the only fortune worth finding. Robert Louis Stevenson know, my profession is very dignified and it will help me to get peace and satisfaction in life. It provides us best chances of service. Sympathy to human being is the sympathy to one own self. Quotations About this essay. Future favors the bold. An early death is better than an aimless life. A noble aim is simply a noble deed. My goal in life is to survive. Everything else is just a bonus. The greater danger for most of us lies not in setting our aim too high and falling short; but in setting our aim too low, and achieving our mark. Michelangelo The aim of art is to represent not the outward appearance of things, but their inward significance. Aristotle. Aim above morality. Be not simply good, be good for something. How to cite My Aim in Life, Papers My Aim in Life Free Essays My aim in life – To be successful (having attained wealth, position, honor) A solid belief system can take us a long way. Success has a belief system and when we can master such a system we are through half way to a successful life. Everything happens for a reason. We will write a custom essay sample on My Aim in Life or any similar topic only for you Order Now Successful people believe that there is a purpose behind every event or situation. Whether it’s a lesson to be learned or a change in your life’s direction, they believe that whatever happens was meant to happen. Thus, they make lemonade out of a lemon. Instead of beating yourself down if something does not go your way, focus on the good that can come out of it. Yes, certain events are difficult to see a positive outcome, but you owe it to yourself and to your success to try your best to make the most out of any situation. Sometimes life does not go as planned, but knowing that everything happens for a reason can help you carve a new path towards a new life with new goals. While climbing the ladder of a successful in life always remember that failure can be a learning experience. Once you submerge yourself into a culture that does not see failure as defeat, you take away an enormous chunk of negative energy from your life. You should always take responsibility for your decisions and actions as it’s very easy to play the blame game whenever a difficult situation arises, but as a leader who takes full responsibility, whether positive or negative of their actions are the one who are successful today. You may be tempted to deflect blame onto others but there is something empowering about accepting responsibility. This shows maturity, as well as a coherent belief system. It’s a symbol of personal power which is necessary to become highly successful. How to cite My Aim in Life, Papers My Aim in Life Free Essays ARTICLE IN PRESS Microbiological Research 161 (2006) 93—101 www. elsevier. de/micres Changes in microbial and soil properties following amendment with treated and untreated olive mill wastewater Ali Mekki, Abdelha? dh Dhouib, Sami SayadiA Laboratoire des Bioprocedes,Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP: ‘‘K’’ 3038 Sfax, Tunisie ? ? Received 8 June 2005; accepted 15 June 2005 KEYWORDS Microbial community; Olive mill wastewater; Polyphenols; Soil respiration Summary We investigated the effect of untreated and biologically treated olive mill wastewater (OMW) spreading on the soil characteristics and the microbial communities. We will write a custom essay sample on My Aim in Life or any similar topic only for you Order Now The water holding capacity, the salinity and the content of total organic carbon, humus, total nitrogen, phosphate and potassium increased when the spread amounts of the treated or untreated OMW increased. The OMW treated soil exhibited signi? cantly higher respiration compared to the control soil. However, the C-CO2/Ctot ratio decreased from 1. 7 in the control soil to 0. 5 in the soil amended with 100 m3 haA1 of untreated OMW. However, it slightly decreased to 1. 15 in the soil amended with 400 m3 haA1 of treated OMW. The treated OMW increased the total mesophylic number while the number of fungi and nitri? ers decreased. Actinomycetes and spore-forming bacteria were neither sensitive to treated nor to untreated OMW. The total coliforms increased with higher doses of treated and untreated OMW. A toxic effect of the untreated OMW appeared from 100 m3 haA1. This toxicity was more signi? cant with 200 m3 haA1, where micro? ora of total mesophilic, yeasts and moulds, actinomycetes, and nitri? ers were seriously inhibited except for total coliforms and spore-forming bacteria. 2005 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Introduction The olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a critical problem, especially in the Mediterranean area, where the olive cultivation is widespread and huge amounts of this ef? uent 30 millions m3 yA1 worldACorresponding author. Tel. /fax: +216 74 440 452. wide and 500 000 m3 yA1 in Tunisia alone, are annually produced (Sayadi and Ellouz, 1995; Casa et al. , 2003). This waste contains an enormous supply of organic matter, COD between 40 and 210 g dmA3 and BOD5 between 10 and 150 g dmA3 (Feria, 2000). Some characteristics of this material E-mail address: sami. sayadi@cbs. rnrt. tn (S. Sayadi). 0944-5013/$ – see front matter 2005 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. doi:10. 1016/j. micres. 2005. 06. 001 ARTICLE IN PRESS 94 are favourable for agriculture since this ef? uent is rich in organic matter, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg). The organic fraction of this wastewater includes sugars, tannins, poly phenols, poly alcohols, pectins, lipids, and proteins (Mulinacci et al. , 2001; LesageMeessen et al. , 2001). For these reasons, increasing attention has been given to ? d the best methods to spread OMW on agricultural lands and to recycle both the organic matter and the nutritive elements in the soil crop system. Moreover, agricultural irrigation with wastewater ef? uents became a common practice in arid and semiarid regions, where it was used as a readily available and inexpensive option to fresh water (Angelakis et al. , 1999; Oved et al. , 2001). Fresh OMW was used as a fertilize r in the horticulture and in the olive cultivation (Cox et al. , 1997; Ben Rouina et al. , 1999; Ammar and Ben Rouina, 1999; Cereti et al. , 2004). However, biodegradation of this waste in the nature is dif? cult because it contains a strong antibacterial effect exerted, by various phenolic compounds (Yesilada et al. , 1999; Sayadi et al. , 2000; Rinaldi et al. , 2003). Before its utilization in the irrigation, OMW was treated by several processes such as aerobic treatment, anaerobic digestion and composting process (Sayadi and Ellouz, 1992, 1995; Ehaliotis et al. , 1999; Paredes et al. , 2000; Kissi et al. , 2001; Marques, 2001; Casa et al. , 2003; D’Annibale et al. , 2004). Some Mediterranean countries established laws about soil capability to endure the OMW application, particularly in Italy (Law N1 574, 1996). The maximum amount of OMW tolerated in the ? elds is 80 and 50 m3 haA1 for OMW obtained by centrifuge and pressure extraction techniques, respectively (Law N1 574, 1996). The addition of such compounds may cause signi? cant shifts in the structure and the function of the microbial community, which in turn may in? uence the viability of the soil for agriculture. The effect of the OMW on the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil are well documented (Cabrera et al. , 1996; Cox et al. 1997; Sierra et al. , 2001; Zenjari and Nejmeddine, 2001; Rinaldi et al. , 2003). However, these studies did not deal with the effect of this waste on the microbial community of the soil (Moreno et al. , 1987; Paredes et al. , 1987; Kotsou et al. , 2004). An integrated approach using a pre-treatment of the OMW with the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium followed by an anaerobic digestion was developed in our laboratory in order to reuse the ef? uent in agriculture (Sayadi and Ellouz, 1995). Thus, the aim of our work was to investigate A. Mekki et al. he effect of untreated and biologically treated OMW on the soil characteristics and on the microbial communities. Materials and methods OMW origin The fresh OMW was taken from a three-phase discontinuous extraction factory located in Sfax, Tunisia. Biological treatment of OMW The treated OMW was obtained with an integrated process based on aerobic fungal pre-treatment using P. chrysosporium DSMZ 6909 followed by a decantation step then anaerobic digestion (Sayadi and Ellouz, 1995). The characteristics of the treated and untreated OMW are given in Table 1. Table 1. Chemical and physical properties of untreated and biological treated OMW Parameter pH (25 1C) Electric conductivity (25 1C) (dS mA1) Salinity (g lA1) Colour (absorbance 395 nm) UV absorbance 280 nm BOD5 (g lA1) COD (g lA1) Glucose (g lA1) Residual solids (g lA1) Total solids (%) Total volatiles (%) Total suspended solids (g lA1) Volatiles suspended solids (g lA1) Nitrogen (g lA1) Phosphorous (g lA1) Potassium (g lA1) o-di-phenols (g lA1) Total poly phenols (g lA1) Residual oils (g lA1) Toxicity by LUMIStox (% inhibition) Untreated OMW 5. 46 8. 7 5. 9 82 368 34. 117 12 26 11. 4 9. 3 8. 9 6. 5 1. 58 0. 84 5. 2 8. 395 9. 200 9. 2 100 Treated OMW 7. 6 11. 3 9. 7 44 38 4. 5 21. 9 ND ND 2. 5 1. 42 3. 5 2. 7 1. 72 1. 12 4. 4 1. 265 1. 578 Not detected 38 ARTICLE IN PRESS Changes in microbial and soil properties following amendment 95 Study sites and sampling The study area consisted in a ? eld of olive trees located in Chaal at 60 Km to the South-West of ? Sfax, Tunisia, North latitude 341 30 , East longitude 101 200 . The mean annual rainfall is 200 mm (Ben Rouina et al. , 2001). The ? eld was divided in ? ve plots. Three experimental plots P1, P2, and P3 were annually amended in February with 50, 100, and 200 m3 haA1 of untreated OMW respectively (Ben Rouina, 1994). The plot P4, was annually amended with 400 m3 haA1 of the treated OMW. The ? fth plot, plot C, was not amended and served as control. Soil samples were collected from different parts of each plot from 0 to 10 cm deep, using a soil auger. All soil samples, taken from each plot were then mixed, air-dried, sieved with a mesh size of 450 mm and stored at 4 1C prior to use. Water content was immediately determined before airdrying the sample. xtracted with 1 M solution of ammonium acetate (pH 7) using a soil/solution ratio of 1/10 (w/ v). The suspension was analysed with an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES, ARL 3580). Microtoxicity determination The microtoxicity test consisted in the inhibition of the bioluminescence of Vibrio ? scheri LCK480 using the LUMIStox system (Dr. Lange GmbH, Duesseldorf, Germany ) and according to ISO 11348-2 (1998). Percentage inhibition of the bioluminescence was achieved by mixing 0. 5 ml of OMW and 0. 5 ml luminescent bacterial suspension. After 15 min exposure at 15 1C, the decrease in light emission was measured. The toxicity of the OMW was expressed as the percent of the inhibition of bioluminescence (%IB) relative to a non-contaminated reference. A positive control (7. 5% NaCl) was included for each test. Physicochemical analyses Analysis of ortho-diphenols: The ortho-diphenols concentration in the OMW was quanti? ed by means of Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method (Box, 1983) using caffeic acid as standard. The absorbance was determined at l ? 765 nm. Analysis of total polyphenols: OMW was centrifuged at 7000 rpm for 20 min. The supernatant was extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The collected organic fraction was dried and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was extracted two times with dichloromethane in order to remove the non-phenolic fraction (lipids, aliphatic, sugars). The liquid phase was discarded while the washed residue was weighed and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with the mass spectroscopy technique to con? rm the phenolic structure of the extracted compounds. COD was determined according to Knechtel (1978) standard method. BOD5 was determined by the manometric method with a respirometer (BSB-Controller Model 620 T (WTW)). Dry weight and moisture content were determined by weighing samples before and after drying overnight at 105 1C. Organic matter was determined after furnacing samples at 550 1C for 4 h. Total carbon and nitrogen were determined by dry combustion (TOC Analyser multi-N/C 1000). Ca, K, Na, and Mg analyses, the air-dried soil was Respirometric test Biological activity in the soil was achieved by measuring CO2 evolution in the aerobic condition ? (Ohlinger, 1995). The soil sample was humidi? ed to 50% of its water holding capacity and incubated at 30 1C in the dark. The CO2 evolved was trapped in an NaOH solution and titrated with HCl. Microbial estimation Ten grams of the soil sample was suspended in an erlenmeyer ? ask containing 90 ml of a sterile solution (0. 2% of sodium polyphosphate (NaPO3)n in distilled water, pH 7. 0) and 10 g of sterile glass beads (1. 5 mm diameter). The ? ask was shaken at 200 rpm for 2 h. Serial 10-fold dilutions of the samples in a 0. 85% NaCl solution were plated in triplicate on PCA at 30 1C for total bacterial counts, on Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol at 25 1C for yeasts and moulds, on DCL at 37 1C for total coliforms, and on soil extract agar at 30 1C for actinomycetes. Soil extract agar was prepared as follows: 1 kg of soil was added to 1 l of distilled water and agitated energetically. Supernatant was ? ltered. Its pH was adjusted to 7 and sterilized at 121 1C for 20 min twice. A 200 ml of this extract and 20 g of Agar-agar were added to 800 ml of distilled water and sterilized at 121 1C for 20 min. Penicillin G, Cycloheximide, Ampicillin and Nistatin were dissolved in water and sterilized by ? ltration (0. 22 mm) and ARTICLE IN PRESS 96 were added at ? nal concentration of 1, 50, 10 and 50 mg lA1, respectively. For spore-forming bacteria counts, aliquots were heated for 10 min at 80 1C before spreading on PCA and incubation at 37 1C. Ammonia and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were enumerated by the most probable number (MPN) procedure (Trolldenier, 1995). Culture tubes supplemented either with ammonium or nitrite were inoculated with serially diluted soil suspension. After an extended incubation of 4 weeks at 28 1C, acidi? cation of the medium was recorded by taking colour change as an indication for growth of ammonium oxidizers and the absence of nitrite as an indication for growth of nitrite oxidizers. Subsequently, the MPN was calculated in accordance with the table of MPN values. The total nitri? ers count was the sum of the oxidizers of ammonium and of nitrite. Each soil sample was analysed in duplicate and the dilution series were plated in triplicate for each medium. All these counts were expressed as colony forming units (CFU) per gram of dried soil (24 h at 105 1C). The total nitri? ers count was expressed as MPN per gram of dried soil. A. Mekki et al. high content of phenolics (9. 2 g lA1). This toxicity was reduced to 38%IB in treated OMW which contained only 1. 8 g lA1 of phenolics. The COD (21. 9 g lA1) of treated OMW remained high and far exceeded the standard for direct discharge to a natural water body. Several costly steps are necessary if we want to reach the Tunisian standard (0. 09 g lA1). The treated OMW contained appreciable concentrations of N, P, and K. This ef? uent was free of pathogens, relatively not toxic and contained low concentrations of heavy metals. Apart from COD, BOD5 and black colour, the quality of treated OMW was high and could be used for irrigation after ? eld tests. Analytical results of soils pro? les A darker soil colour was observed in the plots amended with OMW. After drying, the amended soils showed higher compactness and hardness. Soils were sampled and analysed in a particularly dry year in Tunisia. Only weak precipitations were recorded in February, May and November. The soil water content was very weak and it varied between 0. 8% and 1. 15% in the samples collected in September (Table 2). The pH increased to 9. 2 when P4 soil was amended with treated OMW and slightly decreased to 7. 4 when P3 soil was amended with raw OMW. Table 2 shows also that salinity of the amended soil increased proportionally with quantity of treated or untreated OMW. The content of the nutrients as total carbon (Ctot), total nitrogen (Ntot), P, K, Mg and humus increased after spreading Results Characterisation of the ef? uents Untreated OMW totally inhibited V. ?scheri (Table 1). This toxicity was essentially due to its Table 2. Results of the air-dried soils characterization C 89. 82 7. 44 2. 74 1. 14 7. 9 69 0. 02 0. 001 0. 14 0. 25 0. 02 14. 70 0. 23 0. 0312 2. 001 4 8. 7 P1 ND ND ND Characteristics 9 8 Particle size Sand = distribution ? ? clay ; : in control soil Silt Moisture content (%) pH (KCl) Salinity (mg kgA1) P (mg gA1) P (water soluble) (mg gA1) K (mg gA1) Mg (mg gA1) Na (mg gA1) Ca (mg gA1) Ntot (mg gA1) N-NH4 (mg gA1) Ctot (mg gA1) Humus (mg gA1) C/N P2 ND ND ND 1. 15 7. 6 336. 5 0. 08 0. 016 1. 60 0. 40 0. 03 16. 20 0. 95 0. 055 15. 504 31 16. 32 P3 ND ND ND 1. 07 7. 4 447. 5 0. 08 0. 12 1. 80 0. 37 0. 04 1 5. 80 0. 91 0. 089 16. 999 34 18. 68 P4 ND ND ND 0. 82 9. 2 473 0. 05 0. 027 2. 42 0. 33 0. 31 14. 70 0. 45 0. 088 4. 001 8 8. 89 1. 13 7. 9 240 0. 03 0. 003 1. 05 0. 35 0. 17 19. 80 0. 56 0. 044 8. 002 16 14. 29 P1, P2, and P3: Soils amended with 50, 100, and 200 m3 haA1 of untreated OMW respectively; P4: Soil amended with 400 m3 haA1 of the treated OMW. The plot C was not amended and served as control. ND: not done. ARTICLE IN PRESS Changes in microbial and soil properties following amendment the treated or untreated OMW. The C/N ratio remained constant in the soil amended with treated OMW while it increased proportionally in the soils amended with untreated OMW. Phenolic compounds migrated in soil according to their molecular mass. Polyphenols were adsorbed in the soil upper layers while monomers migrated in depth. Indeed phenolic monomers were detected at 1. 2 m depth 1 year after irrigation with untreated OMW (data not shown). C-CO2 18 16 C-CO2 and Ctot (mg g-1) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Ctot C-CO2/Ctot 1. 8 1. 6 1. 4 C-CO2/Ctot 1. 2 1 0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0 C P1 P2 Soil P3 P4 97 Soil respiration A respirometric test was achieved on soils sampled in September. CO2 production increased with OMW amendment (Fig. 1). For the treated OMW, a more pronounced CO2 production rate was shown since the ? rst week of incubation. However, for the untreated OMW, the start-up of the CO2 production was delayed to the 3rd week of respiration. The speci? c respiration rate expressed as the ratio of C-CO2/Ctot for the different soil samples is shown in Fig. 2. The amendment of the soil with 200 m3 haA1 increased the carbon content to 17 mg gA1 while the speci? c respiration remained very low. However, the amendment with 400 m3 haA1 of treated OMW did not much affect the speci? c respiration of the soil. 0 Figure 2. Speci? c respiration C-CO2/Ctot, cumulative CCO2, and total carbon Ctot of the soil samples studied. shown). An increase in the total micro? ora count was observed in P1, P2 and P4 in all dates of sampling (Table 3). However, at 200 m3 haA1 of untreated OMW, the total bacterial counts remained much higher compared to the control soil, but lower compared to the other doses of OMW. Effect on soil microbiology Viable mesophilic micro? ora Generally, the total micro? ora increased with the soil humidity. OMW enhanced the water holding capacity of the soil. The soil water content increased when the OMW dose increased (data not 12 Viable yeasts and moulds micro? ora In comparison with the control soil, an overall high CFU of fungi in the soil amended with untreated OMW was found (Table 4). In all dates of sampling, the fungal CFU number decreased when OMW increased but remained much higher than the control soil except for biologically treated OMW which had a lower CFU than the control. We noted that the pH of OMW leaving the anaerobic reactor ranged between 7. 6 and 8. This pH increased to 8. 7 during its storage at ambient temperature. After amendment with treated OMW, the pH of the soil increased to 9. 2. Such pH value is considered as detrimental for the fungal growth. C P1 P2 P3 P4 mg C-CO 2 g -1 (dry soil) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Viable total nitri? rs Soils C, P1 and P2 showed broadly comparable nitri? er MPN numbers. However, a decrease in viable nitri? ers count was observed in P3. This decrease was more signi? cant in P4 (Table 5). Time (d) Figure 1. Cumulative respiratory activity as mg CO2 gA1 dry soil of different samples incubated over 28 days at 28 1C in the dark. Viable actinomycetes The actinomycetes CFU number increased when OMW doses increased up to the dose of 100 m3 haA1. At 200 m3 haA1 of untreated OMW, the CFU number remained higher than C and P1 (50 m3 haA1). However, it was lower than P2 (100 m3 haA1) (Table 6). ARTICLE IN PRESS 98 Table 3. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria counts CFU ( A 104) gA1 in the different plots Feb C P1 P2 P3 P4 3472 8574. 95 12177. 11 6673. 9 9075. 3 May 6974. 05 7774. 52 8975. 32 7274. 23 10175. 93 Jun 24. 571. 44 45. 572. 67 57. 573. 38 5773. 35 7974. 64 Sep 1570. 88 48. 572. 85 65. 573. 85 43. 572. 55 6073. 52 Nov 21. 571. 26 8374. 88 16179. 46 9275. 4 15879. 29 A. Mekki et al. Data expressed as mean value (three replicates) and standard deviation for colony forming units per gram of dried soil. Table 4. Fungi counts in the different plots CFU ( A 104) gA1 Feb May 370. 5 11. 573. 64 571. 58 4. 671. 45 1. 8570. 58 Jun 370. 95 1775. 38 1574. 75 1173. 48 2. 8570. 9 Sep 1. 370. 41 15. 574. 9 1073. 17 4. 171. 29 1. 7470. 55 Nov 2. 770. 85 14. 774. 65 13. 574. 27 11. 273. 55 1. 3570. 42 C P1 P2 P3 P4 3. 571. 11 1073. 17 5. 571. 74 7. 572. 37 1. 8270. 57 Table 5. Nitri? ers counts MPN (x104) gA1 in the different plots Feb May 4. 770. 62 4. 570. 59 4. 270. 55 2. 870. 37 0. 4870. 063 Jun 3. 270. 42 3. 470. 45 2. 670. 34 1. 770. 22 0. 5170. 07 Sep 2. 870. 37 2. 470. 31 2. 470. 31 1. 170. 14 0. 0770. 009 Nov 3. 870. 5 3. 170. 41 2. 870. 37 1. 170. 14 0. 70. 11 C P1 P2 P3 P4 3. 670. 47 2. 670. 34 270. 26 1. 970. 25 0. 4670. 06 Table 6. Actinomycetes counts CFU ( A 104) gA1 in the different plots Feb May 2. 170. 28 14. 571. 93 18. 572. 46 1872. 39 17. 572. 33 Jun 270. 26 871. 06 15. 572. 06 1271. 59 15. 672. 07 Sep 270. 26 1071. 33 10. 571. 39 5. 570. 73 12. 2971. 63 Nov 3. 570. 46 12. 871. 7 17. 272. 29 14. 771. 95 15. 772. 09 C P1 P2 P3 P4 0. 670. 08 770. 93 1171. 46 570. 66 13. 2971. 77 Viable spore-forming bacteria and total coliforms The spore-forming bacteria increased with the increase of OMW doses (data not shown). For P4 soil, it shifted from the CFU gA1 number ranging from 0. 28 to 1. 12 A 104 in the control soil to CFU gA1 number ranging from 1. 1 to 2. 12 A 104 in P4 amended with 400 m3 haA1 of treated OMW. Total coliforms are well known as contaminant indicator bacteria in wastewater and soil. The number of the total coliforms was very low in the control soil. It increased when the treated or untreated OMW quantity increased (data not shown). Discussion This study attempted to demonstrate that soil amended with different concentrations of OMW showed modi? ation of its structure and its texture. The acidity of the untreated OMW was compensated by the soil carbonate alkalinity. The carbonates at the same time became bicarbonates, moved and accumulated in deeper horizons as was shown by Sierra et al. (2001). The increase of the salinity in the soil could result from the main ionic species, sodium chloride and sulphate, coming from the treated or untreated OMW. This is in line with previous ? nding ARTICLE IN PRESS Changes in microbial and soil properties following amendment (Paredes et al. , 1987; Sierra et al. 2001). Hence, in long-term applications, replacement of the soil calcium by the cations of Na, K and Mg could lead to the degradation of the soil structure and the formation of saline soils as was suggested earlier by Zenjari and Nejmeddine (2001). Biologically treated OMW had a pH48, and the alkalinity of this waste was not regulated (buffered) by the soil components. Soil porosity was reduced by the combined effect of the suspended solids and the COD formed by highly polymerised polyphenolic compounds such as humic acid-like substances (Cox et al. 1997). Consequently, soil plugged and became impermeable which led to a reduction of the soil aerobic community such as fungi and actinomycetes. This ? nding con? rms the reported correlation between the soil pH and the ( change in community composition (Frostegard et al. , 1993; Perkiomaki and Fritze, 2002). ? ? The increase of nutrient contents, Ctot, Ntot, P Mg , and K at all OMW treated plots, may have a bene? cial effect on the soil fertility. The OMW treated soil exhibited a higher respiration rate compared to the control soil. Nevertheless, when taking into account the added organic carbon, this activity was not in proportional ratio. Speci? c respiration expressed as C-CO2/Ctot decreased from 1. 7 in the control soil to 0. 5 in the soil amended with 100 m3 haA1 of untreated OMW. Yet, it slightly decreased to 1. 15 in the soil amended with 400 m3 haA1 of treated OMW. This can be explained by the fact that the phenolic compounds may inhibit the soil respiration, especially in the high OMW doses, and thus neutralize the favourable in? uence of its higher nutrient contents as was demonstrated by Sierra et al. 2001), Cox et al. (1997), Cabrera et al. (1996), and Paredes et al. (1987). In simple terms, the inhibition of soil respiration could be caused by the fact that the big amount of carbon added to the soil was unavailable to the micro? ora under the effect of its strong adsorption or its reaction with the components of the soil. This disproportion could not be due to the added salt because despite the high content of salt in P4 (473 mg kgA1) compared to that in P3 (447. 5 mg kgA1), the former had a nearer speci? c respiration rate to the control plot C which contained only (69 mg kgA1). Addition of the untreated or the biologically treated OMW to the soil created some modi? cations in the average values for total number of microorganisms and their repartition. Results showed an initial increase in the numbers of CFU in most micro? ora groups after the OMW amendment, excepted for nitri? ers which decreased. In line with this ? nding, Paredes et al. (1987) reported also an increase in the total viable counts in the soil polluted with OMW. The overall low CFU number 99 observed in the P3 soil could be explained by the OMW dose becoming high and toxic (Capasso et al. 1995). The chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are responsible for the ? rst ratelimiting step in nitri? cation in which ammonia (NH3) is transformed to nitrate (NOA) via nitrite 3 (NOA). The AOB play a critical role in the natural 2 nitrogen cycle (Oved et al. , 2001; Mendum and Hirsch, 2002). This micro? ora could be affected by a variety of chemical conditions including aromatic compounds and salts. Indeed, the number of nitri? ers shifted from the CFU gA1 number ranging from 2. 8 to 4. 7 A 104 in the control soil to CFU gA1 number ranging from 0. 46 to 0. A 104 in P4 amended with 400 m3 haA1 of treated OMW. Some authors reported that higher pH is not favourable for some phylogenetic groups of nitrifying bacteria (Kowalchuk et al. , 2000). Moreover, some residual polyphenolic compounds present in treated OMW may be toxic for this sensitive category of microorganisms (Peredes et al. , 1987). Actinomycetes and spore-forming bacteria play a signi? cant role in the organic matter cycle in nature, by virtue of their considerable powers and ability to break down complex organic molecules. Actinomycetes counts were strongly enhanced by treated and untreated OMW amendment. The introduction of organic pollutants, which can potentially act as toxic substances and nutrient sources, was shown to preferentially stimulate speci? c populations (Atlas et al. , 1991). The increase of the CFU count of spore-forming bacteria were in accordance with the earlier investigations of Paredes et al. (1987) who reported an increase in spore-forming bacteria counts but a decrease in the proportion of this population in the community from 10% to 12% in the control soil to 0. 02% in the polluted soil with OMW. Fungi populations are known by their considerable depolymerising enzymes and their resistance to recalcitrant substances. The OMW enhanced fungi, the most important organisms decomposing lignin and polyphenols (Scheu and Parkinson, 1994; Borken et al. , 2002). Consequently, this population was favoured in plots P1, P2 and P3 where pH and C/N ratio were also more favourable compared to the control. This observation con? rms previous ? ndings by Perkiomaki and Fritze (2002) and Joergensen et al. (1995). ? Conclusion Based on previous studies and our results, we suggest that the effect of the long-term use of OMW in the ferti-irrigation on the soil microbial commu- ARTICLE IN PRESS 00 nity, the soil fertility and the soil physico-chemical properties remain unclear. Yet, speci? c attention must be devoted to the irrigation potential of treated OMW with explicit reference to the major crops of agricultural interest. The following guidelines should be adhered to the OMW spreading on soil A. Mekki et al. Box, J. D. , 1983. Investigation of the Folin-Ciocalteau phenol reagent for the determination of polyphenol ic substances in natural waters. Water Res. 17, 511–522. Cabrera, F. , Lopez, R. , Martinez-Bordiu, A. , Dupuy de Lome, E. , Murillo, J. M. , 1996. Land treatment of olive oil mill wastewater. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 38 (3-4), 215–225. Capasso, R. , Evidenti, A. , Schivo, L. , Orru, G. , Marcialis, M. A. , Cristinzio, G. , 1995. Antibacterial polyphenols from olive oil mill waste waters. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 79, 393–398. Casa, R. , D’Annibale, A. , Pieruccetti, F. , Stazi, S. R. , Giovannozzi Sermanni, G. G. , Lo Cascio, B. , 2003. Reduction of the phenolic components in olive-mill wastewater by enzymatic treatment and its impact on durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. ) germinability. Chemosphere 50, 959–966. Cereti, C. F. , Rossini, F. Federici, F. , Quaratino, D. , Vassilev, N. , Fenice, M. , 2004. Reuse of microbially treated olive mill wastewater as fertiliser for wheat (Triticum durum Desf. ). Bioresource Technol. 91, 135–140. Cox, L. , Celis, R. , Hermosin, M. C. , Beker, A. , Cornejo, J. , 1997. Porosity and herbicide leaching in soils amended with olive-mill wastewater. Agri. Ecosyst. Environ. 65 (2), 151–161. D’Annibale, A. , Casa, R. , Pieruccetti, F. , Ricci, M. , Marabottini, R. , 2004. Lentinula edodes removes phenols from olive-mill wastewater: impact on durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. ) germinability. Chemosphere 54, 887–894. Ehaliotis, C. , Papadopoulou, K. , Kotsou, M. , Mari, I. , Balis, C. , 1999. Adaptation and population dynamics of Azotobacter vinelandii during aerobic biological treatment of olive-mill wastewater. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 30, 301–311. Feria, A. L. , 2000. The generated situation by the O. M. W. in Andalusia. Actas/Proceedings-Workshop Improlive2000-Annex A1. ( ( (( Frostegard, A. , Baath, E. , Tunlid, A. , 1993. Shifts in the structure of soil microbial communities in limed forests as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Soil Biol. Biochem. 25, 723–730. ISO 11348-2, 1998. Water quality – Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of Vibrio ? scheri (Luminescent bacteria test) – Part 2: Method using liquid-dried bacteria Joergensen, R. G. , Anderson, T. H. , Wolters, V. , 1995. Carbon and nitrogen relationship in the microbial biomass of soils in beech Fagus sylvatica L. forest. Biol. Fert. Soils 19, 141–147. Kissi, M. , Mountadar, M. , Assobhei, O. , Gargiulo, E. , 2001. Roles of two white-rot basidiomycete fungi in decolorisation and detoxi? cation of olive mill waste water. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 57, 221–226. Knechtel, R. J. 1978. A more economical method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand. Water Pollut. Control (May/June), 25–29. Kotsou, M. , Mari, I. , Lasaridi, K. , Chatzipavlidis, I. , Balis, C. , Kyriacou, A. , 2004. The effect of olive oil mill    do not exceed 50 m3 haA1 yA1 of untreated OMW and to decrease the dose of treated OMW up to 100 m3 haA1 yA1 to avoid the increase of the soil salinity. integrate a polishing tertiary treatment of OMW for reducing the residual coloration and toxicity of the ef? uent. frequently till and avoid dry soil conditions to maintain a maximal activity of the soil micro? ra. Acknowledgments This work was supported by Inco-med project ‘‘Mediterranean usage of biotechnological treated ef? uent water’’ ICA3-CT-1999-00010. The authors would like to thank: ‘‘Institut de l’Olivier de Sfax’’ and Dr Bechir Ben Rouina for their permission to use the experimental plant of OMW amendment at Chaal farm. ? References Ammar, E. , Ben Rouina, B. , 1999. Potential horticultural utilization of olive oil processing waste water. Acta Horticult. 474 (2), 741–744. Angelakis, A. N. , Marecos Do Monte, M. H. F. , Bontoux, L. , Asano, T. , 1999. The status of wastewater reuse practice in the Mediterranean basin: need for guidelines. Water Res. 33 (10), 2201–2217. Atlas, R. M. , Horowitz, A. , Krichevsky, M. , Bej, A. K. , 1991. Response of microbial populations to environmental disturbances. Microb. Ecol. 22, 249–256. Ben Rouina, B. , 1994. Repercussions agronomiques de ? l’epandage des margines comme fertilisant. Interna? tional conference on Land and Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean Region II, 583–594. Ben Rouina, B. , Taamallah, H. , Ammar, E. , 1999. Vegetation water used as a fertilizer on young olive plants. Acta Horticult. 74 (1), 353–355. Ben Rouina, B. , Gargouri, K. , Taamallah, H. , 2001. L’utilisation des margines comme fertilisant en agriculture. Journees Mediterraneennes de l’oliviers. ? ? ? Nimes, France 6–7 8 Avril. Borken, W. , Muhs, A. , Beese, F. , 2002. Changes in microbial and soil properties following compost treatment of degraded t emperate forest soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34, 403–412. ARTICLE IN PRESS Changes in microbial and soil properties following amendment wastewater (OMW) on soil microbial communities and suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani. Appl. Soil Ecol. 26, 113–121. Kowalchuk, G. A. Stienstra, A. W. , Heilig, G. H. , Stephen, J. R. , Woldendorp, J. W. , 2000. Molecular analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in soil of successional grasslands of the Drentsche A (The Netherlands). FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 31, 207–215. Law N1 574, 1996 (Legge 574, 11/11/1996). Norme sull’utilizzazione agronomica dei re? ui oleari. Gazzetta Uf? ciale N. 265 del 12 novembre, 1996. Lesage-Meessen, L. , Navarro, D. , Maunier, S. , Sigoillot, JC. , Lorquin, J. , Delattre, M. , Simon, J. -L. , Asther, M. , Labat, M. , 2001. Simple phenolic content in olive oil residues as a function of extraction systems. Food Chem. 75 (4), 501–507. Marques, I. P. , 2001. Anaerobic digestion treatment of olive mill wastewater for ef? uent re-use in irrigation. Desalination 137, 233–239. Mendum, T. A. , Hirsch, P. R. , 2002. Changes in the population structure of b-group autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria in arable soils in response to agricultural practice. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34, 1479–1485. Moreno, E. , Perez, J. , Ramos-Cormenzana, A. , Martinez, J. , 1987. Antimicrobial effect of waste water from olive oil extraction plants selecting soil bacteria after incubation with diluted waste. Microbios 51, 169–174. Mulinacci, N. , Romani, A. , Galardi, C. , Pinelli, P. , Giaccherini, C. , Vincieri, F. F. , 2001. Polyphenolic content in olive oil waste waters and related olive samples. J. Agri. Food Chem. 49, 358–3514. ? Ohlinger, R. , 1995. Soil respiration by titration. In: ? Schinner, F. , Ohlinger, R. , Kandeler, E. , Margesin, R. (Eds. ), Methods in Soil Biology. Springer, Berlin, pp. 95–98. Oved, T. , Shaviv, A. , Goldrath, T. , Mandelbaun, R. T. , Minz, D. , 2001. In? uence of ef? uent irrigation on community composition and function of ammoniaoxidizing bacteria in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 3426–3433. Paredes, M. J. , Moreno, E. , Ramos-Cormenzana, A. , Martinez, J. , 1987. Characteristics of soil after 101 pollution with waste waters from oil extraction plants. Chemosphere 16, 1557–1564. Paredes, C. , Roig, A. , Bernal, M. P. , Sanchez-Monedero, M. A. , Cegarra, J. , 2000. Evolution of organic matter and nitrogen during co-composting of olive mill wastewater with solid organic wastes. Biol. Fert. Soils 32 (3), 222–227. Perkiomaki, J. , Fritze, H. , 2002. Short and long-term ? ? effects of wood ash on boreal forest humus microbial community. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34, 1343–1353. Rinaldi, M. , Rana, G. , Introna, M. , 2003. Olive-mill wastewater spreading in southern Italy: effects on a durum wheat crop. Field Crops Res. 84, 319–326. Sayadi, S. , Ellouz, R. , 1992. Decolourization of olive mill waste-waters by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium : involvement of the lignin-degrading system. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 37, 813–817. Sayadi, S. , Ellouz, R. , 1995. Roles of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the decolorization of olive mill wastewaters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 1098–1103. Sayadi, S. , Allouche, N. , Jaoua, M. , Aloui, F. , 2000. Detrimental effects of high molecular-mass polyphenols on olive mill wastewater biotreatment. Process Biochem. 35, 725–735. Scheu, S. , Parkinson, D. , 1994. Changes in the bacterial and fungal biomass C, bacterial and fungal biovolume and ergosterol contents after drying, remoistening and incubation of different layers of cool temperature forest soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 26, 1515–1525. Sierra, J. , Marti, E. , Montserrat, G. , Cruanas, R. , Garau, M. A. , 2001. Characterization and evolution of a soil affected by olive oil mill wastewater disposal. Sci. Total Environ. 279, 207–214. Trolldenier, G. , 1995. Nitri? ers by MPN method. In: ? Schinner, F. , Ohlinger, R. , Kandeler, E. , Margesin, R. (Eds. ), Methods in Soil Biology. Springer, Berlin, pp. 32–36. ? ? Yesilada, E. , Ozmen, M. , Yeslada, O. , 1999. Studies on the toxic and genotoxic effect of olive oil mill wastewater. Fresenius Envir. Bull. 8, 732–739. Zenjari, A. , Nejmeddine, A. , 2001. Impact of spreading olive mill wastewater on soil characteristics: laboratory experiments. Agronomie 21, 749–755. How to cite My Aim in Life, Papers My Aim in Life Free Essays Solar Technologies Solar energy has been used for centuries for drying crops, clothes, wood, and crop residues, and heating buildings. But now methods have been developed to make these activities more efficient, and to use solar energy in different ways. There are two main types of solar energy technology: passive solar (heat) and photovoltaic. We will write a custom essay sample on My Aim in Life or any similar topic only for you Order Now Selected examples of both are demonstrated at the site. Solar drier This is a method for increasing the efficiency and cleanliness of solar drying. Fruit and vegetables are dried on racks in a small chamber with a solid earth back wall and plastic film covering. The drier is constructed from available stone, mud, bamboo and white plastic sheet and built facing south to maximise the sunshine it receives. The design ensures a constant airflow. Solar cooker The solar parabolic cooker is a reflecting surface in the form of a parabolic dish which concentrates the solar rays at a focal point on which the cooking pot is placed. The reflector is mounted in such a way that it can be easily adjusted to face the sun. The quantity of heat delivered to the cooking pot is proportionate to the reflector size; very high temperatures can be attained sufficient for most conventional cooking such as rice and lentil soup (dal). The net power of the cooker is approximately 700 watts in good sunshine. Solar lamp The Tukimara solar lamp consists of a small solar photovoltaic module and three tiny semiconductor devices called white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) that convert electricity into white light more efficiently than traditional filament lamps. The three WLEDs together use only about 0. Watt of power, much less than the approximately 10 Watt consumption of the conventional solar DC lamps used in Nepal. Solar lamps have strong advantages for rural kitchens, where they provide bright, smoke-free light, with no danger of fire, unlike kerosene lamps. Solar lamps can be used like a torch, and are safe when handled by children. Development of lights using WLEDs has great potential and a big scope for mass us e in low cost home lighting systems in rural areas in the Himalayan region. Solaqua solar still The Solaqua Solar Still uses natural evaporation and condensation to give pure water using solar energy. It removes impurities such as salts, heavy metals, arsenic, and nitrates, and eliminates microbiological organisms and the taste and odour of chlorine to give pure water. This simple technology is appropriate for mountain communities and can be used under harsh mountain conditions. The equipment can produce 6 litres of purified water per day under sunny conditions. The advantages are the very simple operation and maintenance and cost effectiveness, since only solar energy is required. It is suitable for both rural and urban areas. Solar oven Cooks 3 to 4 items in 2 hours (enough for a family of 3-4) * Can be used in all seasons when there is adequate sunshine   * Reduces the consumption of fuel   wood * Reduces the drudgery of firewood collection (usually done by women)   * Helps to save the forest and environment * Is an efficient use of solar energy Solar dryer * Can dry 6-8 kgs of food in 2 days (depending on thickness and water content) * Saves about 40% of drying time comp ared to in the open * Keeps food clean during the drying process and reduces unhygienic exposure to dust, insects, birds, and others * Can easily be moved to optimise exposure to the sun Is an efficient use of solar energy Solar water disinfecting device (SWAD) Disease-causing organisms in water are killed by exposure to heat in a process called pasteurisation. Water that has been heated to 65? C (150? F) for a short period of time is free from most common harmful microbes and is safe to drink. * Can be used to disinfect 6-12 litres of water per day   * Helps to reduce consumption of fuel wood, exposure to smoke from burning wood, and the drudgery of collecting wood. * Is an efficient use of solar energy. Animal Husbandry Goat husbandry Goats are part of the farm house hold in mountain farming systems. Particularly for marginal farmers, they have significant advantages over cows and buffalo. They are docile, clean and friendly animals; they require smaller capital investment, which also means less risk per animal; and they multiply faster and require less feed than the larger animals. Goats can be bred for milk or meat. Dairy goats can produce I-2 litres of milk per day; the milk has smaller particles of fat and protein than cow or buffalo milk and so is easily digestible. It is recommended for drinking by infants and the elderly, and especially for those who have difficulty digesting cow’s milk. Goat’s milk can help build resistance to gastro-intestinal and respiratory disorders. Goat meat does not have inter-muscular fat and is recommended for consumption by people with cardiovascular diseases like high blood pressure and heart disease. Local goat breeds are less productive than improved breeds, but they are hardy and suited to local conditions. The Godavari trials are aimed at crossing to optimise improvements in goat performance whilst retaining the benefits of local breeds. They also focus on stall feeding methods as a way of supporting natural vegetation regeneration, since goats are acute grazers if left to roam. Two pairs of pure-bred Nubian and Boer goats have been obtained from the Asian Rural Life Development Foundation (ARLDF) in the Philippines. Nubians are goats bred for milk production, yielding about two litres of milk per day. The Boer is an improved goat bred primarily for meat; a mature ram can weigh from 110-135 kg (240-300 lbs) and a ewe from 90-100 kg (200-225 lbs). The pure bred goats have been crossed with the local breed to obtain the optimum level of performance plus hardiness for the conditions in the HKH mid hills. The male goats are used to service the goats of local farmers, with nearly 1400 offspring produced as a result so far. The aim is to demonstrate how optimising breeds can improve income and other benefits with little outlay. Angora rabbits Angora rabbits produce a high quality wool which is soft, silky, light, and warm and has a good market. They thrive in temperate climates, and can survive well at temperatures from -2? C to 35? C, with the ideal range from 15-25? C. These rabbits are mainly bred for their wool, but after three years they can be culled and used for meat and their pelt. The paws and tails are often made into trinkets. In recent years, farmers in the HKH region have become interested in keeping Angora rabbits as an easy and relatively low cost way of generating income. A number of breeding pairs of German Angora rabbits are maintained at Godavari to demonstrate the ease and advantages of keeping these rabbits. The German Angora rabbit is a high wool producing breed; individuals weigh around 3-4 kg and produce 0. 6-1. kg of wool per year. The offspring of the rabbits are provided and sold to farmers and organisations in Nepal and Pakistan and others, close to 90 breeding pairs have been distributed so far. Soil Management The soil management activities at the Godavari site focus on various methods for reducing erosion and improving soil fertility that do not require large inputs, are not based on the use of inorganic fertiliser, and can be used by individual farmers with few resources. The major practices are described below. * Conservation Farming * Agroforestry * SALT * Green Manure * Shelter/Protection Belts * Composting How to cite My Aim in Life, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Mexico And International Trade Essays - Economy, Business

Mexico And International Trade IV. International Trade IV.1 History During World War II Mexico had very good business relations with the United States. They provided a lot of raw materials, which were necessary to support American military needs. In that time the U.S. had an agreement with Mexico specifying that the country would export its resources only to the Allies. After WW II Mexico restricted imports in an attempt to promote domestic growth, while resisting foreign domination. In 1948 the government striving to reverse the unfavorable balance of trade, devalued the peso. Imports not essential for industrial development were sharply restricted. They did this to reach a stage of self-sufficiency. But still they obtained in 1950 an Export-Import Bank loan of $150 million for the financing of several projects to improve transportation, agriculture, and power facilities. This helped to improve the whole economic situation. This policy led to an average annual growth rate of about 6 % for the next two decades. By the late sixties it was realized, that the domestic industries have become lethargic and inefficient because of the shelter from international competition. 1965: The Maquiladoras Program To help its manufacturing sector, Mexico settled the Mexico's Border Industrialization Program. The BIP allows US and foreign companies to ship components and production equipment into Mexico, free of duty, for assembly or processing utilizing Mexican labor. These Mexican facilities are commonly referred to as Maquiladoras, or in-bond assembly plants. The BIP sought to attract foreign manufacturing facilities, technology and know-how. Over the past years, a large portion of US-Mexican trade has been attributed to rapid growth in the Mexican Maquiladora industry. In 1992, Maquiladora Plants numbered 2,113, employing 469,614 Mexican workers. The 1980's: the diversification In order to promote a merchandise trade surplus, which would help service the foreign debt, and offset shrinking oil revenues, Mexico adopted a policy of diversifying its economic base away from petroleum. The government's program of promoting non-traditional manufactured exports was highly successful. Whereas crude oil and oil products accounted for some 75% of Mexican export in 1983, their share dropped to a low 34 % by 1988. Thus, non-petroleum exports increased to 66% of exports. Automotive products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel products, electrical and non-electronic goods, and textiles and clothing became major clothing items. Late 1980's: Liberalized Trade in Mexico In 1986, Mexico became a full member of the GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the international body then responsible for governing most international trade, now replaced by the WTO, the World Trade Organization. Since Mexico's accession to the organization, its tariff and non-tariff barriers have been substantially reduced. Mexico has eliminated many import license requirements, in many cases converting them to tariffs, allowing for their eventual reduction. Growth of Mexican-US Trade From 1986 to 1991, US exports to Mexico shot up by 167 %. During this same period, exports to Mexico increased at nearly twice the rate of overall growth in US exports. Manufactured goods have accounted for over three-quarters of US exports to Mexico. Mexican imports from the US accounted roughly 70% of total Mexican imports. From 1982 to 1990, the United States ran a merchandise trade deficit with Mexico. IT peaked to a high of $7.7billion in 1983. In 1991, The United States turned the bilateral deficit into a merchandise trade surplus. The most of this trade was effected with Texas, then California and Michigan. Foreign Investment environment The new openness of the Mexican economy in the late 1980's also showed through the fact that more than two-thirds of Mexico's total gross domestic product (GDP) was made accessible to 100 percent foreign ownership. This provided for unlimited opportunities to US investors. While US-based firms continue to rank as the largest source of foreign investment in Mexico (1990 total US direct foreign investment was $9. 4 billion), a growing list of companies from the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, France, Switzerland, Spain and others are taking advantage of Mexico's new business opportunities. NAFTA; the opening of markets In December 1992, Presidents Salinas and Bush and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada signed the North American Free Trade Agreement -NAFTA-. The Mexican Legislature ratified NAFTA in 1993 and the treaty went into effect on January 1 1994, creating the largest free-trade zone in the world. All barriers to trade such as tariffs have

Friday, March 20, 2020

Definition and Examples of Amphiboly in English

Definition and Examples of Amphiboly in English Amphiboly is a  fallacy  of relevance that relies on an ambiguous word or grammatical structure to confuse or mislead an audience. Adjective: amphibolous. Also known as  amphibology. More broadly, amphiboly may refer to a fallacy that results from a faulty sentence structure of any kind. Etymology From the Greek, irregular speech Pronunciation:  am-FIB-o-lee Examples and Observations [T]he 2003 election reform law demanded that politicians acknowledge in their own voices their responsibility for advertisements they run on public airwaves. But five years later, the I approved has become a pivotal device in commercials for Congress and the White House, a place for candidates to make a declaration of intent, summarize the message or take a parting shot. . . .A University of New Hampshire rhetoric professor, James Farrell, was irked as far back as the 2004 Democratic primary campaign, the first time the disclaimers were required. Then, as now, he said, advertisement writers were coming up with awkward non-sequiturs just to slip in something extra.Mr. Farrell noted a current commercial for Representative Don Cazayoux, Democrat of Louisiana, in which the candidate said, I’m Don Cazayoux and I approved this message because that’s who I’m fighting for. That, Mr. Farrell said, is an amphiboly, a logical confusion created by a grammatical ambiguity.Of course, if asked, the candidate will say he means he’s fighting for the middle class, said Mr. Farrell, of the spot’s theme. However, one could easily conclude that the disclaimer addition refers to the candidate himself, as in, I’m Don and that’s who I’m fighting for.(Steve Friess, Candidates ‘Approve’ Ads and Get a Bit Creative. The New York Times, Sep. 30, 2008) Humorous Amphibolies Amphiboly is usually so recognizable that it is rarely used in real-life situations to make a claim seem stronger than it is. Instead, it more often leads to humorous misunderstandings and confusions. Newspaper headlines are one common source of amphiboly. Here are a few examples: Prostitutes Appeal to Pope Farmer Bill Dies in House Dr. Ruth to Talk About Sex With Newspaper Editors Burglar  Gets Nine Months in Violin Case Juvenile  Court to Try Shooting Defendant Red Tape Holds Up New Bridge Marijuana Issues Sent to a Joint Committee Two Convicts Evade Noose: Jury Hung. . . . Most of these cases of amphiboly are the result of a poorly constructed sentence: I like chocolate cake better than you. Although we normally try to avoid them, intentional amphiboly may prove useful when we feel obligated to say something we would rather not have to say, yet want to avoid saying something that is patently not true. Here are lines from letters of recommendation: In my opinion, you will be very fortunate to get this person to work for you. I am pleased to say that this candidate is a former colleague of mine. From a professor on receiving a late paper from a student: I shall waste no time in reading this. (John Capps and Donald Capps, Youve Got To Be Kidding!: How Jokes Can Help You Think. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009) Amphiboly in a Classified Ad Sometimes the amphiboly is more subtle. Take this newspaper classified ad that appears under Furnished Apartments for Rent: 3 rooms, river view, private phone, bath, kitchen, utilities included Your interest is aroused. But when you visit the apartment, there is neither a bathroom nor a kitchen. You challenge the landlord. He remarks that there are common bathroom and kitchen facilities at the end of the hall. But what about the private bath and kitchen that the ad mentioned? you query. What are you talking about? the landlord replies. The ad didnt say anything about a private bath or a private kitchen. All the ad said was private phone. The advertisement was amphibolous. One cannot tell from the printed words whether private modifies only phone or whether it also modifies bath and kitchen. (Robert J. Gula, Nonsense: Red Herrings, Straw Men and Sacred Cows: How We Abuse Logic in Our Everyday Language. Axios, 2007) Characteristics of Amphibolies To become a skilled perpetrator of amphibolies you must acquire a certain nonchalance toward punctuation, especially commas. You must learn to toss off lines such as I heard cathedral bells tripping through the alleyways, as if it mattered not a whit whether you or the bells were doing the tripping. You should acquire a vocabulary of nouns which can be verbs and a grammatical style which easily accommodates misplaced pronouns and confusions over subject and predicate. The astrology columns in popular newspapers provide excellent source material. (Madsen Pirie, How to Win Every Argument: The Use and Abuse of Logic. Continuum, 2006) The Lighter Side of Amphiboly Some amphibolous sentences are not without their humorous aspects, as in posters urging us to Save Soap and Waste Paper, or when anthropology is defined as The science of man embracing woman. We should be mistaken if we inferred immodest dress on the woman described in a story: . . . loosely wrapped in a newspaper, she carried three dresses. Amphiboly is often exhibited by newspaper headings and brief items, as in The farmer blew out his brains after taking affectionate farewell of his family with a shotgun. (Richard E. Young, Alton L. Becker, and Kenneth L. Pike, Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. Harcourt, 1970)

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Introduction to French Translation and Interpretation

Introduction to French Translation and Interpretation Translation and interpretation are the ultimate jobs for people who love language. However, there are a lot of misunderstandings about these two fields, including the difference between them and what kind of skills and education they require. This article is an introduction to the fields of translation and interpretation. Both translation and interpretation (sometimes abbreviated as T I) require superior language ability in at least two languages. That may seem like a given, but in fact, there are many working translators whose language skills are not up to the task. You can usually recognize these unqualified translators by extremely low rates, and also by wild claims about being able to translate any language and subject. Translation and interpretation also require the ability to accurately express information in the target language. Word for word translation is neither accurate nor desirable, and a good translator/interpreter knows how to express the source text or speech so that it sounds natural in the target language. The best translation is one that you dont realize is a translation because it sounds just like it would if it had been written in that language to begin with. Translators and interpreters nearly always work into their native language, because its too easy for a non-native speaker to write or speak in a way that just doesnt sound quite right to native speakers. Using unqualified translators will leave you with poor-quality translations with mistakes ranging from poor grammar and awkward phrasing to nonsensical or inaccurate information. And finally, translators and interpreters need to understand the cultures of both the source and target languages, in order to be able to adapt the language to the appropriate culture. In short, the simple fact of speaking two or more languages does not necessarily make a good translator or interpreter - theres a lot more to it. It is in your best interest to find someone who is qualified and certified. A certified translator or interpreter will cost more, but if your business needs a good product, it is well worth the expense. Contact a translation/interpretation organization for a list of potential candidates. Translation vs. Interpretation For some reason, most laypeople refer to both translation and interpretation as translation. Although translation and interpretation share the common goal of taking information that is available in one language and converting it to another, they are in fact two separate processes. So what is the difference between translation and interpretation? Its very simple. Translation is written - it involves taking a written text (such as a book or an article) and translating it in writing into the target language. Interpretation is oral - it refers to listening to something spoken (a speech or phone conversation) and interpreting it orally into the target language. (Incidentally, those who facilitate communication between hearing persons and deaf/hard-of-hearing persons are also known as interpreters. So you can see that the main difference is in how the information is presented - orally in interpretation and written in translation. This might seem like a subtle distinction, but if you consider your own language skills, the odds are that your ability to read/write and listen/speak are not identical - you are probably more skilled at one pair or the other. So translators are excellent writers, while interpreters have superior oral communication skills. In addition, spoken language is quite different from writing, which adds a further dimension to the distinction. Then theres the fact that translators work alone to produce a translation, while interpreters work with two or more people/groups to provide an interpretation on the spot during negotiations, seminars, phone conversations, etc. Translation and Interpretation Terms Source languageThe language of the original message. Target languageThe language of the resulting translation or interpretation. A language  - Native languageMost people have one A language, although someone who was raised bilingual may have two A languages or an A and a B, depending on whether they are truly bilingual or just very fluent in the second language. B language  - Fluent languageFluent here means near-native ability - understanding virtually all vocabulary, structure, dialects, cultural influence, etc. A certified translator or interpreter has at least one B language unless he or she is bilingual with two A languages. C language  - Working languageTranslators and interpreters may have one or more C languages - those which they understand well enough to translate or interpret from but not to. For example, here are my language skills: A - EnglishB - FrenchC - Spanish So in theory, you can translate French to English, English to French, and Spanish to English, but not English to Spanish. In reality, you only work from French and Spanish to English. You wouldnt work into French, because you recognize that my translations into French leave something to be desired. Translators and interpreters should only work into the languages that they write/speak like a native or very close to it. Incidentally, another thing to watch out for is a translator who claims to have several target languages (in other words, to be able to work in both directions between, say, English, Japanese, and Russian). It is very rare for anyone to have more than two target languages, although having several source languages is fairly common. Types of Translation and Interpretation General translation/interpretation is just what you think - the translation or interpretation of non-specific language that does not require any specialized vocabulary or knowledge. However, the best translators and interpreters read extensively in order to be up-to-date with current events and trends so that they are able to do their work to the best of their ability, having knowledge of what they might be asked to convert. In addition, good translators and interpreters make an effort to read about whatever topic they are currently working on. If a translator is asked to translate an article on organic farming, for example, he or she would be well served to read about organic farming in both languages in order to understand the topic and the accepted terms used in each language. Specialized translation or interpretation refers to domains which require at the very least that the person be extremely well-read in the domain. Even better is training in the field (such as a college degree in the subject, or a specialized course in that type of translation or interpretation). Some common types of specialized translation and interpretation are financial translation and interpretationlegal translation and interpretationliterary translationmedical translation and interpretationscientific translation and interpretationtechnical translation and interpretation Types of Translation Machine translationAlso known as automatic translation, this is any translation that is done without human intervention, using software, hand-held translators, online translators such as Babelfish, etc. Machine translation is extremely limited in quality and usefulness. Machine-assisted translationTranslation that is done with a machine translator and a human working together. For example, to translate honey, the machine translator might give the options  le miel  and  chà ©ri  so that the person could decide which one makes sense in the context. This is considerably better than machine translation, and some argue that it is more effective than human-only translation. Screen translationTranslation of movies and television programs, including subtitling (where the translation is typed along the bottom of the screen) and dubbing (where the voices of native speakers of the target language are heard in place of the original actors). Sight translationDocument in the source language is explained orally in the target language. This task is performed by interpreters when an article in the source language is not provided with a translation (such as a memo handed out at a meeting). LocalizationAdaptation of software or other products to a different culture. Localization includes translation of documents, dialog boxes, etc., as well as linguistic and cultural changes to make the product appropriate to the target country. Types of Interpretation Consecutive interpretation  (consec)The interpreter takes notes while listening to a speech, then does his or her interpretation during pauses. This is commonly used when there are just two languages at work; for example if the American and French presidents were having a discussion. The consecutive interpreter would interpret in both directions, French to English and English to French. Unlike translation and simultaneous interpretation, consecutive interpretation is commonly done into the interpreters A and B languages. Simultaneous interpretation  (simul)The interpreter listens to a speech and simultaneously interprets it, using headphones and a microphone. This is commonly used when there are numerous languages needed, such as in the United Nations. Each target language has an assigned channel, so Spanish speakers might turn to channel one for the Spanish interpretation, French speakers to channel two, etc. Simultaneous interpretation should only be done into ones A language.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Analysis of case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Analysis of case study - Essay Example It should also be expected that being trained professionals, crew members in these large vessels are expedient enough to do some of the quotidian tasks that they are well trained for. However, it is paradoxical to note that these professionals, expected to help in the case of a disaster, actually end up causing the disasters themselves through their negligent acts. This was certainly the case with the Soaring Albatross which shall be at the center of our study in this paper. I shall endeavor to identify the legal issues and analyze them in the context of this tragedy. The first legal issue that is presented by this tragedy has to do with gross negligence. This negligence happened on three levels in the case of the Soaring Albatross. There were negligence on the part of the crew, negligence on the part of the owners, and finally negligence on the part of the authorities i.e. the Financial Services authority. All this contributed directly to the tragedy (Anon 2000). In specific, to use the words of a judge delivering a ruling on another ferry incident, the crew seemed to suffer ‘a disease of sloppiness’. In any workplace there are respective responsibilities that are assigned to each person. This might be called specialization or even more simply the division of labor. The same case applies to a ferry. First there is a captain, there is a First Officer and crew members among several other professionals who might not be very relevant to the current paper (Anon 1987). The negligence on the part of the crew is astounding. The minimum expectance on the part of the crew is to ensure that their core and basic responsibilities are tended to. These include cleaning, but even more poignant in this case, closing the bow doors. This was the responsibility of the assistant boatswain, Michael Smith. However, he was asleep when the harbor-stations call sounded. In this case, there is what is called standing in for someone when they are not able to discharge their duties as they are expected (Mandaraka-Sheppard 2001). The person who was expected to step into these shoes was Thomas Johnson. However, he failed to do so because it was not his duty. On the face of it, this seems like a plausible excuse. However, when you begin to appreciate that his decision whether to close the doors or not had a bearing on peoples a life, including his own, the folly in his decision is clear for all to see. This is indeed is a level of negligence that borders on defiance. Being the last person on the G-deck, he should first have ensured that all was catered for since he was the boatswain. However, it does not stop there. There are several hierarchies in a ferry. Before the ferry set sail, the First officer, Jane Davis, according to the law is supposed to stay on deck until all the doors are closed. She did not do this since she assumed that Michael Smith had already done so. Finally, in as far as the negligence of the crew is concerned; there is negligence on t he part of the captain. The captain assumed that all doors were secured owing to his poor vantage point, and also to the fact that the ship’s design and absence of lights at the wheelhouse made it impossible to view them. Considering the number of tragedies that have happened owing exactly to the reasons given above, the captain should at least have done his due diligence before he set off. He should have learnt from the failure of others (Hughes 1999). Next, I shall look at negligence